/Notes/ JavaScript Basics

Notes from reading Marijn Haverbeke’s Eloquent JavaScript

  • JS uses 64 bits
  • Calculations w/ fractional numbers are generally not guaranteed to be precise
  • Template literal = backtick-quoted string
  • Ternary = true ? 1 : 2 = if true then 1 else 2
  • Logical || and &&
    • part to right is only evaluated when necessary
    • || returns value to left when it can be converted to true, returns right value otherwise
    • && returns value to left when it can be converted to false, returns right value otherwise

Side effect:

  • application state change that is observable outside the called function other than its return value
  • piece of code whereby a variable is created and available throughout a scope when it doesn’t need to be
  • network requests, I/O devices, data mutation
  • changing a variable that exists outside the function, to calling another method from within a function

Pure function:

  • Always returns same result if same arguments are passed in
  • Does not depend on any state or data change during a program’s execution
  • Must only depend on its input arguments


  • const identifier can’t be reassigned
  • let variable may be reassigned
  • let also signals that variable will only be used in the block its defined in
  • both const and let are local to the block they are declared in, while in pre-2015 JS, a var binding could be seen throughout the whole function


  • scopes can look out into the scope around it, can’t look in
  • if multiple bindings have same name however, only innermost one can be seen. Example:
    const halve = function(n) { return n/2 }
    let n = 2
    halve(100) = 50
    console.log(n) logs 10

Lexical scoping:

  • Describes how a parser resolves variable names when functions are nested
  • the word lexical refers to the fact that lexical scoping uses the location where a variable is declared to determine where that variable is available
  • Actual definition of lexical:
    • “of or relating to words or the vocab of a language as distinguished from its grammar and construction”
    • “a dictionary provides lexical information, it tells you what a words means and not all there is to know about that word”
  • So we could say lexical is about how the word (variable) relates to the words (code) around it. Lexical scoping is like the context of a variable. What is the variable’s meaning here, in this context? Visible. What is its meaning in this other context? Not useable.


  • Because a function has to jump back to the place that called it when it returns, the computer must remember the context from which the call happened.
  • Context is stored in the callstack.
  • Every time a function is called, the current context is stored on top of this stack.
  • When a function returns, it removes the top context from the stack and uses that context to continue execution.


  • combination of a function and the lexical environment within which that function was declared
  • This environment consists of any local variables that were in scope at the time the closure was created
  • kind of like referring to an instance of an inner function created when outer function is ran. The instance of the inner function maintains a reference to its lexical environment.
  • Closure recipe:
    1. Create your parent function (i.e. the checkScope function)
    2. Define some variables in the parent’s local scope (can be accessed by child function) (i.e. var innerVar = "local scope")
    3. Define a function inside the parent function. this is a child (i.e. the innerFunc function)
    4. Return that function from inside the parent function (i.e. return innerFunc)
        function checkScope() {
       var innerVar = "local scope"
       function innerFunc() {
           return innerVar
       return innerFunc
Written on January 5, 2018